Gallic acid may be used as a therapeutic agent for allergic rhinitis. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Gallic acid alleviates nasal inflammation via activation of Th1 and inhibition of Th2 and Th17 in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Mar 15 ;70:512-519. Epub 2019 Mar 15. PMID: 30884431
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an allergic nasal disease characterized by nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and itching. Type 1 helper T cells (Th1)/type 2 helper T cells (Th2) imbalance has been identified as an important immunological mechanism of AR. In addition, up-regulation of type 17 helper T cells (Th17) also increase the risk of developing AR. Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA), a polyphenol natural product, is obtained from various herbs, red wine, and green tea. It is known to have diverse biological effects such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-microbial and anti-cancer. In the present study, the effect of GA on airway inflammation and expression of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR mouse model were investigated. GA alleviated the nasal allergic symptoms, reduced the thickness of nasal mucosa, attenuated goblet cell hyperplasia and eosinophil cell infiltration in the nasal mucosa, decreased the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-17 in nasal lavage fluid (NALF), and diminished the levels of OVA-specific IgE, OVA-specific IgG1 and OVA-specific IgG2a in serum. However, GA increased the expression of interferon-gamma and IL-12 in NALF. Taken together, it suggests that GA may be used as a therapeutic agent for AR.