Gallic and butyric acids modulated NLRP3 inflammasome markers in a co-culture model of intestinal inflammation.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2020 Dec ;146:111835. Epub 2020 Oct 29. PMID: 33130239
Bioactive compounds from food products made from natural ingredients such as corn and common bean could target the NLRP3 inflammasome, protein scaffolds with a key role in the moderation of intestinal inflammation. This research aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect from the fermented non-digestible fraction of baked corn and common bean snack (FNDF), and its main components, on the modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome markers in vitro. For this, a THP-1 macrophage/differentiated Caco-2 cell co-culture was used as a model of intestinal inflammation. A disease control (DC) (LPS/human IFN-γ, 10 ng/mL) was compared with FNDF (40-300 μg/mL) and its pure components: gallic (38.85 μM) and butyric acids (6 μM), verbascose (0.06 μM), their mixture, and an anti-inflammatory control (tofacitinib, 5 μM). Compared to DC, FNDF (40 μg/mL) reduced the 48 h-basolateral nitrites (40-60%), IL-1β/IL-18, and TNF-α production. Additionally, it decreased the total reactive oxygen species (36.3%) and nitric oxide synthase (6.9%) activities, increasing superoxide dismutase (228.2%)activity. Compared to NLRP3 positive control, FNDF components decreased NLRP3 markers (caspase-1 activity, IL-1β, and apoptosis). These results highlight NLRP3-anti-inflammatory effects from FNDF components. This is the first report of the NLRP3 inflammasome modulation by digested food matrix components, using a co-culture approach.