Gastrodin improves cognitive dysfunction and decreases oxidative stress in vascular dementia rats induced by chronic ischemia.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 ;8(11):14099-109. Epub 2015 Nov 1. PMID: 26823723
OBJECTIVE: To study the potential protective effects of gastrodin on reducing tissue oxidative stress and attenuating cognitive deficits in vascular dementia induced by cerebral chronic hyperfusion. To explore the detailed molecular mechanisms.
METHODS: 6 to 8 week old male Wistar rats were adopted as experimental animals. Animals were divided into the following groups: Group 1 (sham group with no occlusion), Group 2 (control group with 2VO procedure), Group 3 (sham group with gastrodin administration), Group 4 (2VO group with gastrodin administration). Morris water maze (MWM) test was adopted to test the learning and memory function of rats within different groups. MDA, glutathione peroxidase and total thiol assessment was done to reflect the oxidative stress in the brain tissue. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and flow cytometry (FCM) were performed to examine the cell viability and apoptosis rate of SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide and rescued by gastrodin treatments. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined by the 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. qPCR and Western blot (WB) were adopted to detect the molecular mechanisms related to the anti-apoptosis and ROS scavenging effects of gastrodin.
RESULTS: Our results indicated an obvious protective effect of gastrodin on vascular dementia induced brain ischemia. Administration of gastrodin could improve the impaired learning and memory function induced by 2VO procedure in rats. The levels of MDA were partially decreased by the administration of gastrodin. The levels of glutathione peroxidase and total thiol were partially restored by the administration of gastrodin. Cell viability was improved by gastrodin in a dose-dependent pattern on SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (P<0.05). Cell apoptosis rate was reduced by gastrodin in a dose-dependent pattern on SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (P<0.05). Gastrodin could scavenge ROS generation induced by pre-treatment of hydrogen peroxide. Both qPCR and WB results showed significant enhancements on the expression levels of NFE2L2, ADH7, GPX2 and GPX3 (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Gastrodin administration is protective on the learning and memory functions that might be affected by vascular dementia induced oxidative stress due to brain ischemia. On the molecular level, NFE2L2, ADH7, GPX2 and GPX3 were up regulated by gastrodin.