Effects of genistein on vertebral trabecular bone microstructure, bone mineral density, microcracks, osteocyte density, and bone strength in ovariectomized rats.
J Bone Miner Metab. 2008;26(4):342-9. Epub 2008 Jul 4. PMID: 18600400
Until now, the effects of phytoestrogen on bone in both women and ovarian hormone-deficient animal models of osteoporosis have remained uncertain. We have aimed here to investigate the effect of genistein (GEN) on trabecular bone quality in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty 7-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: OVX, sham-operated (SHAM), treated with 17beta-estradiol (EST, 10 microg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), and GEN (5 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)). At 15 weeks postoperation, the compressive test was performed on the L5 vertebral body; additionally, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) assessment was performed to estimate the bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure parameters of the L6 vertebral body. After fatigue damage testing, the L6 vertebral body was bulk-stained in 1% basic fuchsin and embedded in methylmethacrylate. The L4 vertebral body was embedded in methylmethacrylate for dynamic histomorphometry analysis without staining. Mounted bone slices were used to measure microcrack parameters, empty osteocyte lacuna density (e.Lc.Dn), and osteocyte density (Ot.N/T.Ar). Maximum loading (ML) and Ot.N/T.Ar were significantly lower in the OVX group than in the other groups. E.Lc.Dn was significantly decreased in GEN and EST groups compared to the OVX group. ML was significantly decreased in the GEN group compared to the SHAM group. Microcrack density, microcrack surface density, and microcrack length were significantly increased in the OVX group compared to the other groups. Mineral apposition rate was significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to the SHAM and GEN groups. Bone formation rate was significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to other groups. There were no significant differences with regard to mineralizing surface among the four groups. Volumetric BMD at organ was significantly lower in OVX, EST, and GEN groups than in the SHAM group. Bone mineral content was significantly lower in the OVX group than in the SHAM group. Bone volume fraction and trabecular number were significantly decreased in OVX, EST, and GEN groups compared to the SHAM group. Structure model index was significantly lower in the SHAM group than in OVX, EST, and GEN groups. Trabecular separation was significantly increased in the OVX group compared to SHAM and EST groups. There were no significant differences with regard to the trabecular thickness (Tb,Th) between SHAM, GEN, and OVX groups. Tb.Th was significantly lower in the EST group than in the SHAM group. Connectivity density (Conn.D) was significantly lower in the OVX group than in SHAM and GEN groups, and Conn. D was significantly lower in the EST group than in GEN. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that GEN preserved the biomechanical quality of the trabecular bone regardless of the microstructure and BMD.