Germinated brown rice attenuates atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Germinated Brown Rice Attenuates Atherosclerosis and Vascular Inflammation in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Knockout Mice.
J Agric Food Chem. 2018 May 2 ;66(17):4512-4520. Epub 2018 Apr 23. PMID: 29656648
The present study investigates the impact of germinated brown rice (GBR) on atherosclerosis and the underlying mechanism in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. The intensity of atherosclerosis in aortas of LDLr-KO mice receiving diet supplemented with 60% GBR (weight/weight) was significantly less than that in mice fed with 60% white rice (WR) or control diet ( p<0.05); all diets contained 0.06% cholesterol. WR or GBR diet did not significantly alter plasma total or LDL-cholesterol, fecal sterols, or glucose, or the activities of antioxidant enzymes, compared to the control diet. The adhesion of monocytes to aortas from LDLr-KO mice fed with WR diet was significantly more than that from mice receiving the control diet ( p<0.01). GBR diet decreased monocyte adhesion to aortas compared to WR diet ( p<0.01). GBR diet also reduced the levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in plasma, and the abundances of MCP-1, PAI-1, TNF-α, intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1, toll-like receptor-4, PAI-1, LDLr-like protein, and urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor in aortas or hearts from LDLr-KO mice in comparison to the WR diet ( p<0.05, 0.01, respectively). The findings suggest that GBR administration attenuated atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in LDLr-KO mice compared to WR. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of GBR in LDLr-KO mice at least in part results from its anti-inflammatory activity.