Ginsenoside Rd inhibits the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 by suppressing NF-κB. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Ginsenoside Rd inhibits the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 by suppressing NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and mouse liver.
J Ginseng Res. 2013 Mar ;37(1):54-63. PMID: 23717157
Dae Hyun Kim
Ginsenoside Rd is a primary constituent of the ginseng rhizome and has been shown to participate in the regulation of diabetes and in tumor formation. Reports also show that ginsenoside Rd exerts anti-oxidative effects by activating anti-oxidant enzymes. Treatment with ginsenoside Rd decreased nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-challenged RAW264.7 cells and in ICR mouse livers (5 mg/kg LPS; LPS + ginsenoside Rd [2, 10, and 50 mg/kg]). Furthermore, these decreases were associated with the down-regulations of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that ginsenoside Rd treatment decreases; 1) nitric oxide production (40% inhibition); 2) PGE2 synthesis (69% to 93% inhibition); 3) NF-κB activity; and 4) the NF-κB-regulated expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Taken together, our results suggestthat the anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenoside Rd are due to the down-regulation of NF-κB and the consequent expressional suppressions of iNOS and COX-2.