Effect of the Modifications on the Physicochemical and Biological Properties ofβ-Glucan-A Critical Review.
Molecules. 2019 Dec 23 ;25(1). Epub 2019 Dec 23. PMID: 31877995
β-Glucan exhibits many biological activities and functions such as stimulation of the immune system and anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-infective, anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-coagulant, cholesterol-lowering, radio protective, and wound healing effects. It has a wide variety of uses in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and chemical industries as well as in food processing units. However, due to its dense triple helix structure, formed by the interaction of polyhydroxy groups in the β-d-glucan molecule, it features poor solubility, which not only constrains its applications, butalso inhibits its physiological function in vivo. One aim is to expand the applications for modified β-glucan with potential to prevent disease, various therapeutic purposes and as health-improving ingredients in functional foods and cosmetics. This review introduces the major modification methodsrequired to understand the bioactivity of β-glucan and critically provides a literature survey on the structural features of this molecule and reported biological activity. We also discuss a new method to create novel opportunities to exploit maximally various properties of β-glucan, namely ultrasound-assisted enzymatic modification.