Glucosamine regulates hepatic lipid accumulation by sensing glucose levels or feeding states of normal and excess.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2020 Jul 11:158764. Epub 2020 Jul 11. PMID: 32663610
Dose-dependent lipid accumulation was induced by glucose in HepG2 cells. GlcN also exerted a promotory effect on lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells under normal glucose conditions (NG, 5 mM) and liver of normal fed zebrafish larvae. High glucose (HG, 25 mM)-induced lipid accumulation was suppressed by l-glutamine-d-fructose 6-phosphate amidotransferase inhibitors. ER stress inhibitors did not suppress HG or GlcN-mediated lipid accumulation. HG and GlcN stimulated protein expression, DNA binding and O-GlcNAcylation of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP). Furthermore, both HG and GlcN increased nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) levels in HepG2 cells. In contrast to its stimulatory effect under NG, GlcN suppressed lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells under HG conditions. Similarly, GlcN suppressed lipid accumulation in livers of overfed zebrafish. In addition, GlcN activity on DNA binding and O-GlcNAcylation of ChREBP was stimulatory under NG and inhibitory under HG conditions. Moreover, GlcN enhanced ChREBP, SREBP-1c, ACC,FAS, L-PK and SCD-1 mRNA expression under NG but inhibited HG-induced upregulation in HepG2 cells. The O-GlcNAc transferase inhibitor, alloxan, reduced lipid accumulation by HG or GlcN while the O-GlcNAcase inhibitor, PUGNAc, enhanced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells and liver of zebrafish larvae.GlcN-induced lipid accumulation was inhibited by the AMPK activator, AICAR. Phosphorylation of AMPK (p-AMPK) was suppressed by GlcN under NG while increased by GlcN under HG. PUGNAc downregulated p-AMPK while alloxan restored GlcN- or HG-induced p-AMPK inhibition. Our results collectively suggest that GlcN regulates lipogenesis by sensing the glucose or energy states of normal and excess fuel through AMPK modulation.