Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Glutathione Induced Immune-Stimulatory Activity by Promoting M1-Like Macrophages Polarization via Potential ROS Scavenging Capacity.

Abstract Source:

Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Sep 18 ;8(9). Epub 2019 Sep 18. PMID: 31540482

Abstract Author(s):

Da Hye Kwon, Hyesook Lee, Cheol Park, Su-Hyun Hong, Sang Hoon Hong, Gi-Young Kim, Hee-Jae Cha, Suhkmann Kim, Heui-Soo Kim, Hye-Jin Hwang, Yung Hyun Choi

Article Affiliation:

Da Hye Kwon


The present study investigated the immunomodulatory activity of reduced glutathione (GSH) by assessment of the macrophage polarization (MP)-mediated immune response in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, we identified the signal pathway associated with immune regulation by GSH. The expressions of MP-associated cytokines and chemokines were assessed using cytokine array, nCounter Sprit platform, ELISA and immunoblotting. Phagocytosis activity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured using fluorescence-activated cell sorter. As results of the cytokine array and nCounter gene array, GSH not only up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins and tumor necrosis factor-α, but also overexpressed neutrophil-attracting chemokines. Furthermore, GSH significantly stimulated the production of immune mediators, including nitric oxide and PGE, as well as phagocytosis activity through nuclear factor kappa B activation. In addition, GSH significantly decreased LPS-induced ROS generation, which was associated with an activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/ heme oxygenease-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway. Our results suggest that GSH has potential ROS scavenging capacity via the induction of Nrf2-mediated HO-1, and immune-enhancing activity by regulation of M1-like macrophage polarization, indicating that GSH may be a useful strategy to increase the human defense system.

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