Neuroprotection, neuroregeneration, and interaction with insulin-like growth factor-I: novel non-anticoagulant action of glycosaminoglycans.
J Neurosci Res. 1998 Mar 1;51(5):559-62. PMID: 9511999
Department of Medical Pharmacology, University of Milano, Italy. [email protected]
We present recent developments in the area of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and their possible interaction with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). GAGs are constituents of proteoglycans, and the combination of a core protein and a specific GAG makes a unique proteoglycan with a precise developmental pattern and with the ability to bind growth factors. This process is apparently regulated by the moiety of the peripheral GAGs. The supplementation of GAGs promotes neuritogenesis in vitro and stimulates nerve regrowth and muscle reinnervation, an effect correlated with an increase in trophic factor mRNA expression. In the case of neonatal nerve lesion, there is in addition an enhanced motor neuron survival, accompanied by higher levels of IGF-I in plasma and denervated muscle. The neurotrophic and neuroregenerative effects of exogenous GAGs were also observed in motor neuron disease in the wobbler mouse.