Glycyrrhizin attenuates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Glycyrrhizin attenuates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by suppressing HMGB1-dependent GSDMD-mediated kupffer cells pyroptosis.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Mar ;68:145-155. Epub 2019 Jan 8. PMID: 30634142
Gasdermin D (GSDMD), a genetic substrate for inflammatory caspases, plays a central role in pyroptosis of macrophages and release of interleukin‑1β (IL-1β), but was mainly referred to microbial infection. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), served as an alarm molecule during various pathological process, has been widely recognized to be involved in liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Glycyrrhizin, a natural anti-inflammatory and antiviraltriterpene in clinical use, was recently referred to have ability to prevent I/R induced liver injury by inhibiting HMGB1 expression and activity. However, the mechanisms responsible for damage amelioration subsequently to HMGB1 inhibition during liver I/R remain enigmatic. This study was designed to explore the functional role and molecular mechanism of glycyrrhizin in the regulation of I/R induced liver injury. We found that liver I/R promotes GSDMD-mediated pyroptotic cell death of Kupffer cells, which was inhibited by glycyrrhizin. Interestingly, endogenous HMGB1, not exogenous one, was involved in hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced pyroptosis. Moreover, GSDMD knockdown protects kupffer cells against H/R induced pyroptosis in vitro. Here, we report, for the first time, that glycyrrhizin attenuated tissue damage and kupffer cells pyroptosis during liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) and identify a previously unrecognized HMGB1- dependent GSDMD- mediated signaling pathway in the mechanism of kupffer cells pyroptosis induced by H/R. Our findings provide the first demonstration of GSDMD-determined pyroptotic cell death responsible for I/R induced release of IL-1β and this would provide a mandate to better understand the unconventional mechanisms of cytokine release in the sterile innate immune system.