Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Attenuate Sodium Fluoride-induced Oxidative Damage and Apoptosis in Rat Kidneys.
Biomed Environ Sci. 2020 Jun 20 ;33(6):454-457. PMID: 32641209
Er Hui Wang
Fluoride is widely distributed in nature, and it can lead to fluorosis if intake is excessive. In addition to its established effects on the skeleton and teeth, fluoride can also exert toxic effects on the kidneys. Fluoride can induce abnormal renal function in humans and other animals[1-3], but the mechanisms through which fluoride exerts such effects remain obscure. Fluoride increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causes extensive oxidative stress and excessive lipid peroxidation, and reduces antioxidant enzyme activities in the kidneys[3-5]; furthermore, oxidative stress and apoptosis play fundamental roles in fluoride-induced renal injury[4,5]. Therefore, agents that could exert both antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects on fluoride-induced kidney damage should be identified. Extracts of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE), which are biologically active and have proven antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities[6-9]. These findings suggest that GSPE could treat fluoride-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in the kidneys. Therefore, we explored the protective role of GSPE against fluoride-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat kidneys, the involvement of apoptosis mechanisms in this process, and the protective role of GSPE against fluoride-induced renal damage.