Grape seed procyanidin suppresses inflammation caused by cigarette smoke. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Grape seed procyanidin suppresses inflammation in cigarette smoke-exposed pulmonary arterial hypertension rats by the PPAR-γ/COX-2 pathway.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2019 Sep 30. Epub 2019 Sep 30. PMID: 31791634
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling, which is mainly caused by inflammation. Inhibiting inflammation can relieve PAH. Grape seed procyanidin (GSP) possesses remarkable anti-inflammatory property and vascular protective function. In this experiment, we verified the anti-inflammatory property of GSP in cigarette smoke-exposed PAH rats and revealed its molecular mechanism.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In vivo, 45 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 5 groups randomly, treated with normoxia/cigarette smoke (CS)/GSP + CS/CS + solvent/GSP. After GSP + CS administration, a decrease in mPAP, PVR, RVHI, WT%, and WA% was detected in the rats as compared to those treated with CS. In vitro, the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) caused by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was effectively attenuated with GSP + CSE administration. Furthermore, GSP significantly increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) together with thelowered expression level of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in PASMCs co-incubated with CSE.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that GSP ameliorates inflammation by the PPAR-γ/COX-2 pathway and finally inhibits the proliferation of PASMCs, which leads to pulmonary vascular remodeling.