Linn leaf ethanolic extract: In vivo giardicidal potential with ultrastructural damage, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021 Jan ;28(1):427-439. Epub 2020 Oct 27. PMID: 33424326
Safaa I Khedr
Introduction and aim: Considering the magnitude of giardiasis problem, the side-effects of the used anti-giardia drugs and the resistance posed against them, the current study aimed to evaluate thegiardicidal effect ofleaf extract (PGLE).
Methods: For fulfilling this aim, five Swiss-albino mice groups were included; GI: non-infected, GII:-infected and non-treated, GIII:-infected and metronidazole-treated, GIV:-infected and PGLE-treated, and GV:-infected and treated with both metronidazole and PGLE. Treatment efficacy was assessed via;cyst viability and trophozoite count, trophozoite electron microscopic ultrastructure, duodenal histopathological scoring, immunohistochemistry for TNF-α and duodenal scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, mice serum liver enzymes, total bilirubin, albumin, lipid profile including; total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides were assessed. Additionally, hepatic oxidative stress markers including; malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured.
Results: Results showed that PGLE whether alone or combined with metronidazole has induced significant trophozoite count reduction and major architectural changes. Duodenal histological improvement, and local protective anti-inflammatory effect were confirmed. PGLE has also helped in healing of-induced gut atrophy. Thus, offered a comprehensive therapy for both the pathogen and the resultant pathological sequalae. Serum markers showed favorable hepatoprotective effect. Total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides levels were less in PGLE-treated group than in metronidazole-treated group. Hepatic oxidative stress markers revealed the promising extract antioxidant effect. This study highlights, the promisinggiardicidal PGLE activity, that was comparable to metronidazole, thus, the extract would be an ideal strongly recommended treatment for giardiasis. When combined with metronidazole, the extract potentiated its therapeutic effect. Besides, having hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, the extract can combat the major side effects of metronidazole therapy.