Guggulsterone inhibits angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
z-Guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Jan;7(1):171-80. PMID: 18202020
Our previous studies have shown that z-guggulsterone, a constituent of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer cells by causing apoptosis. We now report a novel response to z-guggulsterone involving the inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The z-guggulsterone treatment inhibited capillary-like tube formation (in vitro neovascularization) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and migration by HUVEC and DU145 human prostate cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The z- and E-isomers of guggulsterone seemed equipotent as inhibitors of HUVEC tube formation. The z-guggulsterone-mediated inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro correlated with the suppression of secretion of proangiogenic growth factors [e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor], down-regulation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) protein level, and inactivation of Akt. The z-guggulsterone-mediated suppression of DU145 cell migration was increased by knockdown of VEGF-R2 protein level. Ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt in DU145 cells conferred protection against z-guggulsterone-mediated inhibition of cell migration. Oral gavage of 1 mg z-guggulsterone/d (five times/wk) to male nude mice inhibited in vivo angiogenesis in DU145-Matrigel plug assay as evidenced by a statistically significant decrease in tumor burden, microvessel area (staining for angiogenic markers factor VIII and CD31), and VEGF-R2 protein expression. In conclusion, the present study reveals that z-guggulsterone inhibits angiogenesis by suppressing the VEGF-VEGF-R2-Akt signaling axis. Together, our results provide compelling rationale for further preclinical and clinical investigation of z-guggulsterone for its efficacy against prostate cancer.