Heat sensitization of hepatitis A virus and Tulane virus using grape seed extract, gingerol and curcumin.
Food Microbiol. 2020 Sep ;90:103461. Epub 2020 Feb 12. PMID: 32336357
Human noroviruses (HNoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are predominantly linked to foodborne outbreaks worldwide. As cell-culture systems to propagate HNoV in laboratories are not easily available, Tulane virus (TV) is used as a cultivable HNoV surrogate to determine inactivation. Heat-sensitization of HAV and TV by"generally recognized as safe'' (GRAS) substances can potentially reduce their time-temperature inactivation parameters during processing to ensure food safety. Curcumin, gingerol (from ginger), and grape seed extract (GSE) reportedly have anti-inflammatory, immune-modulating and antiviral properties. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the D-values and z-values of HAV and TV at 52-68 °C with or without curcumin (0.015 mg/ml), gingerol (0.1 mg/ml), or GSE (1 mg/ml) in 2-ml glass vials. HAV at ~7 log PFU/ml and TV at ~6 log PFU/ml were diluted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and added to two sets of six 2-mL sterile glass vials. One set served as the control and the second set had the three extracts individually added for thermal treatments in a circulating water bath for 0-10 min. The D-values for TV in PBS ranged from 4.55 ± 0.28 to 1.08 ± 0.16 min, and for HAV in PBS ranged from to 9.21 ± 0.24 to 0.67 ± 0.19 min at 52-68 °C. Decreased D-values (52-58 °C) for TV with curcumin ranging from 4.32 ± 0.25 to 0.62 ± 0.17 min, gingerol from 4.09 ± 0.18 to 0.72 ± 0.09 min and GSE from 3.82 ± 0.18 to 0.80 ± 0.07 min, with similar trends for HAV were observed. The linear model showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the D-values of HAV and TV with and without plant extracts for most tested temperatures. This suggests that GRAS substances can potentially lower temperature and time regimens needed to inactivate HAV and TV.