Hesperidin attenuates iron-induced oxidative damage and dopamine depletion in Drosophila melanogaster model of Parkinson's disease.
Chem Biol Interact. 2018 Jan 5 ;279:177-186. Epub 2017 Dec 2. PMID: 29191452
Márcia Rósula Poetini
This study has evaluated the action of flavonoid hesperidin on the neurotoxic effects caused by the intake of iron (Fe) in Drosophila melanogaster. Male adult flies, aged 1-3 days, have been divided into four groups of 50 each: (1) control, (2) Hsd 10 μM, (3) Fe 20 mM (4) Hsd 10 μM + Fe 20 mM. During the exposure protocol, the flies have been exposed to a diet containing Hsd and/or Fe for 48 h. The survival and behavioral analyses have been carried out in vivo, and ex vivo. The analyses involved acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity andFe levels in the flies' heads and bodies and determination of dopaminergic levels, cellular and mitochondrial viability, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reactive species levels (RS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and contents of total thiols and non-proteic thiols (NPSH) in the flies' heads. A significant negative correlation between Fe levels in the head of the flies and the survival, dopamine levels and antioxidant enzymes in the head of the flies has been found. Additionally, significant positive correlation between Fe levels in the head of the flies with negative geotaxis RS and AChE activity in the head of the flies has been found. It demonstrates that the flies which had higher levels of Fe in their heads have demonstrated more susceptibility to neurotoxicity. An important result from our study is that Hsdtreatment promotes a decrease in Fe concentration in the head, restores dopamine levels and cholinergic activity of the flies and improves motor function caused by Fe. Hsd also ameliorates Fe induced mortality, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of Hsd and it suggests that flavonoid acts in different ways to protect against the Parkinson disease caused by Fe exposure such as the direct scavenging of RS and activation of antioxidant enzymes.