High dose vitamin Dempowers effects of subcutaneous immunotherapy in a grass pollen-driven mouse model of asthma.
Sci Rep. 2020 11 30 ;10(1):20876. Epub 2020 Nov 30. PMID: 33257771
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has the potential to provide long-term protection against allergic diseases. However, efficacy of AIT is suboptimal, while application of high doses allergen has safety concerns. The use of adjuvants, like 1,25(OH)VitD(VitD3), can improve efficacy of AIT. We have previously shown that low dose VitD3 can enhance suppression of airway inflammation, but not airway hyperresponsiveness in a grass pollen (GP)-subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) mouse model of allergic asthma. We here aim to determine the optimal dose and formulation of VitD3 for the GP SCIT. GP-sensitized BALBc/ByJ mice received three SCIT injections of VitD3-GP (30, 100, and 300 ng or placebo). Separately, synthetic lipids, SAINT, was added to the VitD3-GP-SCIT formulation (300 nmol) and control groups. Subsequently, mice were challenged with intranasal GP, and airway hyperresponsiveness, GP-specific IgE, -IgG1, and -IgG2a, ear-swelling responses (ESR), eosinophils in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and lung were measured. VitD3 supplementation of GP-SCIT dose-dependently induced significantly enhanced suppression of spIgE, inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, while neutralizing capacity was improved and ESR were reduced. Addition of VitD3 further decreased Th2 cytokine responses and innate cytokines to allergens in lung tissue by GP-SCIT. However, addition of synthetic lipids to the allergen/VitD3 mixes had no additional effect on VitD3-GP-SCIT. We find a clear, dose dependent effect of VitD3 on GP-SCIT-mediated suppression of allergic inflammation and airwayhyperresponsiveness. In contrast, addition of synthetic lipids to the allergen/VitD3 mix had no therapeutic effect. These studies underscore the relevance of VitD3 as an adjuvant to improve clinical efficacy of SCIT treatment regimens.