Ultrastructural mitochondria changes in perihematomal brain and neuroprotective effects of Huperzine A after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015 ;11:2649-57. Epub 2015 Oct 13. PMID: 26508860
AIM: The purpose of the study was to observe the ultrastructural changes of neuronal mitochondria in perihematomal brain tissue and assess the therapeutic potential of Huperzine A (HA, a mitochondrial protector) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
METHODS: Brain hemorrhage was induced in adult Sprague Dawley rats by injecting autologous blood into the striatum and then removing the brains 3, 6, 12, 24, or 48 hours later to analyze mitochondrial ultrastructure in a blinded manner. Parallel groups of ICH rats were treated with HA or saline immediately after ICH. Perihematomal apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), caspase-3 activation and cytochrome C translocation were tracked by immunoblots, and neurobehavioral test results were compared between the groups.
RESULTS: Mitochondria in perihematomal neurons demonstrated dramatic changes including mitochondrial swelling, intracristal dilation, and decreased matrix density. HA treatment decreased mitochondrial injury and apoptosis, inhibited caspase-3 activation and cytochrome C translocation, and improved behavioral recovery.
CONCLUSION: These data show that ICH induces dramatic mitochondrial damage, and HA exhibits protective effects possibly through ameliorating mitochondrial injury and apoptosis. Collectively, these findings suggest a new direction for novel therapeutics.