Abstract Title:

Hydroxocobalamin as a cyanide antidote: safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics in heavily smoking normal volunteers.

Abstract Source:

J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1993;31(2):277-94. PMID: 8492341

Abstract Author(s):

J C Forsyth, P D Mueller, C E Becker, J Osterloh, N L Benowitz, B H Rumack, A H Hall

Article Affiliation:

University of California, San Francisco.


The safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetic parameters of 5 g of hydroxocobalamin given intravenously, alone or in combination with 12.5 g of sodium thiosulfate, were evaluated in healthy adult men who were heavy smokers. Sodium thiosulfate caused nausea, vomiting, and localized burning, muscle cramping, or twitching at the infusion site. Hydroxocobalamin was associated with a transient reddish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and urine, and when administered alone produced mean elevations of 13.6% in systolic and 25.9% in diastolic blood pressure, with a concomitant 16.3% decrease in heart rate. No other clinically significant adverse effects were noted. Hydroxocobalamin alone decreased whole blood cyanide levels by 59% and increased urinary cyanide excretion. Pharmacokinetic parameters of hydroxocobalamin were best defined in the group who received both antidotes: t1/2 (alpha), 0.52 h; t1/2 (beta), 2.83 h; Vd (beta), 0.24 L/kg; and mean peak serum concentration 753 mcg/mL (560 mumol/L) at 0-50 minutes after completion of infusion. Hydroxocobalamin is safe when administered in a 5 gram intravenous dose, and effectively decreases the low whole blood cyanide levels found in heavy smokers.

Print Options

Sayer Ji
Founder of GreenMedInfo.com

Subscribe to our informative Newsletter & get Nature's Evidence-Based Pharmacy

Our newsletter serves 500,000 with essential news, research & healthy tips, daily.

Download Now

500+ pages of Natural Medicine Alternatives and Information.

This website is for information purposes only. By providing the information contained herein we are not diagnosing, treating, curing, mitigating, or preventing any type of disease or medical condition. Before beginning any type of natural, integrative or conventional treatment regimen, it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare professional.

© Copyright 2008-2022 GreenMedInfo.com, Journal Articles copyright of original owners, MeSH copyright NLM.