Hydroxytyrosol ameliorates insulin resistance by modulating endoplasmic reticulum stress and prevents hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obesity mice.
J Nutr Biochem. 2018 Jul ;57:180-188. Epub 2018 Apr 2. PMID: 29747118
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a principal organelle responsible for energy and nutrient management. Its dysfunction has been viewed in the context of obesity and related glucolipid metabolic disorders. However, therapeutic approaches to improve ER adaptation and systemic energy balance in obesity are limited. Thus, we examined whether hydroxytyrosol (HT), an important polyphenolic compound found in virgin olive oil, could correct the metabolic impairments in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Here, we found that HT gavage for 10 weeks significantly ameliorated glucose homeostasis and chronic inflammation and decreased hepatic steatosis in DIO mice. At the molecular level, ER stress indicators, inflammatory and insulin signaling markers demonstrated that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced ER stress and insulin resistance (IR) in insulin sensitive tissue were corrected by HT. In vitro studies confirmed that HT supplementation (100μM) attenuated palmitate-evoked ER stress, thus rescuing the downstream JNK/IRS pathway. As a result from suppression of ER stress in the liver, HT further decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 expression (SREBP1). Additionally, aberrant expression of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis (SREBP1, ACC, FAS, SCD1) caused by HFD was restored by HT. These findings suggested that HT ameliorated chronic inflammation and IR and decreased hepatic steatosis in obesity by beneficial modulation of ER stress.