Hydroxytyrosol and Oleuropein Inhibit Migration and Invasion via Induction of Autophagy in ER-Positive Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF7 and T47D).
Nutr Cancer. 2020 Apr 14:1-11. Epub 2020 Apr 14. PMID: 32286090
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and oleuropein (OL), the most abundant of the phenolic compounds in olives, have anticancer properties against breast cancer (BC). However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism of HT or OL in BC cells. The objective of this study was to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms of these compounds. ER-positive BC MCF7 and T47D cells were treated with HT and OL in combination with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), rapamycin (Rapa, an agonist of autophagy) or 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy). Cell viability, metastasis capability and autophagy-related proteins were evaluated by wound healing assays, Transwell assays and Western blot. HT and OL reduced the cell viability of MCF-7 and T47D cells in a dose-dependent manner. Both cells were more sensitive to HT than OL. In addition, Rapa significantly inhibited HGF-induced migration and invasion, indicating that metastases of both BC cells could be inhibited by suppression of autophagy. Moreover, HT and OL significantly blocked HGF- or 3-MA-induced cell migration and invasion by reversing LC3II/LC3I and Beclin-1 downregulation and p62 upregulation. These findings revealed that HT and OL could suppress migration and invasion by activating autophagy in ER-positive BC cells, which might be a promising therapeutic strategy.