Is gliadin really safe for non-coeliac individuals? Production of interleukin 15 in biopsy culture from non-coeliac individuals challenged with gliadin peptides.
Gut. 2007 Jun ;56(6):889-90. PMID: 17519496
[We consider that, to our knowledge, this is the first time that an IL15‐mediated innate response to gliadin and gliadin peptides is described in individuals without CD, as well as an IL15‐mediated innate response to the “non‐toxic” deaminated immunodominant 33‐mer peptide. The data obtained in this pilot study support the hypothesis that gluten elicits its harmful effect, throughout an IL15 innate immune response, on all the individuals. This innate response is found in both patients with and without CD, although the triggering of an adaptive response is CD specific. We propose that somehow patients with CD need to be DQ2 and also have a lower threshold for triggering an adaptive TH1 response. This lower threshold could be mediated by the higher basal levels of immune mediators, like IFNγ mRNA, found in patients with CD, a defect in the CD permeability or even a higher IL15‐sensitive response under the same stimulus, which might be mediated by a higher density of IL15 receptor in patients with CD.4]