The impact of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on the biochemical, clinical, and immunological markers, as well as on the gut microbiota of obese hosts.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020 Mar 10:1-19. Epub 2020 Mar 10. PMID: 32156153
Tatiane Ferreira da Silva
Obesity is currently considered a global epidemic and it leads to several alterations on the human body and its metabolism. There are evidences showing that the intestinal microbiota can influence on the pathogenesis of obesity. Microbiota plays a vital role not only in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, but also in the homeostatic maintenance of host immunity, metabolism, and gut barrier. Its dietary alteration is an important target in the treatment of obesity. Emerging evidence suggests that modifying the composition of the gut microbiota through probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic supplementation may be a viable adjuvant treatment option for obese individuals. In this review, the impact of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on the anthropometric profile, biochemical regulation, clinical, and immunological markers, as well as on the gut microbiota of obese hosts is described. It also emphasizes how changes in the composition and/or metabolic activity of the gut microbiota through the administration of nutrients with probiotic, prebiotic, or synbiotic properties can modulate the host's gene expression and metabolism, and thereby positively influence on the host's adipose tissue development and related metabolic disorders. The beneficial effects on the host's metabolism promoted by prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics have been successfully demonstrated by several studies. However, further investigation is needed to fully explain the cellular mechanisms of action of probiotics and prebiotics on human health, and also to elucidate the relationship between microbiota and obesity etiology, using well-designed, long-term, and large-scale clinical interventions.