Inhibition of metalloproteinase and proteasome activities in colon cancer cells by citrus peel extracts.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2015 Sep ;26(5):471-7. PMID: 26030791
Ayokunle O Ademosun
BACKGROUND: Citrus peels are consumed in the form of infusions, candy or wine, based on their well-documented nutritional and medicinal properties. This study sought to investigate the effect of some citrus peels' [grapefruit (Citrus paradisii), orange (Citrus sinensis) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] extracts on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and proteasome activities in primary human colonic tumor (Caco-2) and the metastatic cell lines (LoVo and LoVo/ADR) in a bid to explain the possible mechanism by which the peels could manage/prevent colon cancer.
METHODS: The inhibition of MMP and proteasome activities in the cells by the peel extracts, as well as the identification of phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD), was determined.
RESULTS: Orange peel extracts had the strongest inhibition of MMP in Caco-2 and LoVo cells, while shaddock had the least. Shaddock peel extracts also had the least MMP inhibition in LoVo/ADR lysates. Grapefruit had the least proteasome inhibition in Caco-2 and LoVo lysates, while there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the proteasome inhibition of the peel extracts in LoVo/ADR lysates. The extracts inhibited proteasome activity in extract-treated cells, and HPLC fingerprinting of the extracts revealed the presence of some phenolic compounds such as quercetin, caffeic acid, kaempferol, catechin and naringin.
CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of MMP and proteasome activities in colon cancer cell lines suggests the potential use of citrus peels as functional food in the management and/or prevention of colon cancer.