Inhibitory effect of chloroform extracts from Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl. on fat accumulation.
Phytomedicine. 2021 Jun 19 ;90:153634. Epub 2021 Jun 19. PMID: 34225246
BACKGROUND: Excess lipid accumulation can accelerate the development of various metabolic diseases. Blossoms of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl. (CAVA) have been reported to possess inhibitory capacities on lipid deposition. However, the constituents responsible for the observed bioactivity and the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly understood.
PURPOSE: To screen constituents from blossoms of CAVA with inhibitory effects on lipid accumulation and to explore the action mechanism.
METHODS: The chloroform (CHL) extracts are prepared from blossoms of CAVA by fractional extraction and are characterized using LC-MS assay. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes are induced with differentiation medium (DMI) and treated with CHL extracts. High fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice are further established and administrated with CHL extracts for 12 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Oil Red O staining, ELISA, RT-qPCR, western blot and 16S rRNA gene sequence methods are employed.
RESULTS: 14 compounds are identified in CHL extracts and trigonelline hydrochloride, nobiletin and 7-demethylsuberosin are most abundant. CHL extracts treatment significantly inhibit differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by regulating expression of preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and CCAAT/enhancer binding proteinα (C/EBPα). CHL extracts intervention also significantly attenuate features of obesity and improved plasma biochemical profiles in HFD-fed mice. HFD-triggered hepatic steatosis and epididymal adipose tissues (EATs) hypertrophy are also reversed by CHL extracts administration through enhancing antioxidant responses and modulating lipogenesis and energy expenditure-related genes and proteins. 16S rRNA gene sequence data further show that CHL extracts enhance the diversity of gut microbiota. CHL extracts at lower concentrations reduce the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and the abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae. CHL extracts at higher doses markedly increase the abundance of Lachnospiraceae.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CHL extracts probably suppress lipid accumulation through inhibiting differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and attenuating metabolic syndromes in HFD-fed mice.