Inhibitory Effects of StandardizedExtract and Its Bioactive Leonurine on TNF-α-Induced Muscle Atrophy in L6 Myotubes.
J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 Dec 28 ;30(12):1896-1904. PMID: 32627754
Muscle atrophy, characterized by a reduced number and size of myofibers, occurs due to immobilization, aging, and several chronic diseases., belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as a traditional medicine in Korea, China, and Japan. Previous studies have reported thathas various physiological activities, such as anti-bacteria, anti-cancer, and liver protection. Leonurine, which is a major bioactive in, is known to possess biological effects including anti-inflammation, anti-fibrosis, anti-angiogenesis, and anti-diabetes. However, the preventive effects ofand leonurine on muscle have not been reported. The current study aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of standardizedextract (LJE) and leonurine on muscle atrophy by clarifying their underlying molecular mechanisms in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-stimulated L6 myotubes. LJE and leonurine stimulated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway that was reduced by TNF-α treatment. LJE and leonurine not only increased the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway for protein anabolism but also decreased the mRNA expression of E3 ubiquitin ligases by blocking the translocation of Forkhead box O, which is closely linked with proteolysis. Additionally, LJE and leonurine alleviated inflammatory responses by downregulating TNF-α and interleukin-6 mRNA expression and reducing the protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B, a major transcriptional factor of proinflammatory cytokines. Collectively, LJE and leonurine have potential as therapeutic candidates for inhibiting the development of skeletal muscle atrophy by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and reducing inflammatory responses.