Abstract Title:

The role of inorganic nitrate and nitrite in cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of human evidence.

Abstract Source:

Nutr Rev. 2018 May 1 ;76(5):348-371. PMID: 29506204

Abstract Author(s):

Jacklyn K Jackson, Amanda J Patterson, Lesley K MacDonald-Wicks, Christopher Oldmeadow, Mark A McEvoy

Article Affiliation:

Jacklyn K Jackson


Context: Depleted nitric oxide levels in the human body play a major role in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Inorganic nitrate/nitrite (rich dietary sources include beetroot and spinach) can act as a nitric oxide donor because nitrate/nitrite can be metabolized to produce nitric oxide.

Objective: This review and meta-analysis sought to investigate the role of inorganic nitrate/nitrite in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans.

Data Sources: Electronic databases, including Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, and Scopus, were searched.

Data Extraction: Experimental trials examining the effect of oral inorganic nitrate/nitrite intake on cardiovascular disease risk factors were included for systematic analysis.

Results: Thirty-four studies were included for qualitative synthesis, 23 of which were eligible for meta-analysis. Included studies measured the following outcomes: blood pressure, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, platelet aggregation, and/or blood lipids. Inorganic nitrate intake was found to significantly reduce resting blood pressure (systolic blood pressure: -4.80 mmHg, P < 0.0001; diastolic blood pressure: -1.74 mmHg, P = 0.001), improve endothelial function (flow-mediated dilatation: 0.59%, P < 0.0001), reduce arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity: -0.23 m/s, P < 0.0001; augmentation index: -2.1%, P = 0.05), and reduce platelet aggregation by 18.9% (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Inorganic nitrate consumption represents a simple strategy for targeting cardiovascular disease risk factors. Future studies investigating the long-term effects of inorganic nitrate on cardiovascular disease outcomes are warranted.

Study Type : Meta Analysis, Review

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Sayer Ji
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