Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and fertility: A case-control study in male subfertility patients.
Environ Int. 2015 Aug 17 ;84:154-160. Epub 2015 Aug 17. PMID: 26292060
Elly Den Hond
BACKGROUND: Dioxins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, brominated flame retardants, bisphenol A, triclosan, perfluorinated compounds and phthalates are known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate whether higher exposure to EDCs is associated with increased subfertility in men.
METHODS: We measured biomarkers of exposure in 163 men, recruited through four fertility clinics. According to WHO guidelines, we used a total motility count (TMC) of 20 million as cut-off value. We assigned patients to the case group when two semen samples - collected at least one week apart - had a TMC<20 and to the control group when both samples had a TMC≥20. To estimate the risk of subfertility and alteration in sex hormone concentrations we used multivariable-adjusted analysis, using logistic and linear regressions, respectively.
RESULTS: For an IQR increase in serum oxychlordane, the odds ratio for subfertility was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.07; 3.69). Furthermore, men with serum levels of BDE209 above the quantification limit had an odds of 7.22 (1.03; 50.6) for subfertility compared with those having values below the LOQ. Urinary levels of phthalates and triclosan were negatively associated with inhibin B and positively with LH. Urinary bisphenol A correlated negatively with testosterone levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study in men showed that internal body concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals are associated with an increased risk of subfertility together with alterations in hormone levels. The results emphasize the importance to reduce chemicals in the environment in order to safeguard male fertility.