Protective effects of intranasal curcumin on paraquot induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014 Nov ;38(3):913-21. Epub 2014 Oct 18. PMID: 25461551
Paraquot (PQ) is widely and commonly used as herbicide and has been reported to be hazardous as it causes lung injury. However, molecular mechanism underlying lung toxicity caused by PQ has not been elucidated. Curcumin, a known anti-inflammatory molecule derived from rhizomes of Curcuma longa has variety of pharmacological activities including free-radical scavenging properties but the protective effects of curcumin on PQ-induced acute lung injury (ALI) have not been studied. In this study, we aimed to study the effects of curcumin on ALI caused by PQ in male parke's strain mice which were challenged acutely by PQ (50mg/kg, i.p.) with or without curcumin an hour before (5mg/kg, i.n.) PQ intoxication. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were isolated for pathological and biochemical analysis after 48h of PQ exposure. Curcumin administration has significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities. Lung wet/dry weight ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content, total cell number and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in BALF as well as neutrophil infiltration were attenuated by curcumin. Pathological studies also revealed that intranasal curcumin alleviate PQ-induced pulmonary damage and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO). These results suggest that intranasal curcumin may directly target lungs and curcumin inhalers may prove to be effective in PQ-induced ALI treatment in near future.