Isothiocyanates exhibit anti-myeloma activity. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Anti-tumor activity and signaling events triggered by the isothiocyanates, sulforaphane and phenethyl isothiocyanate, in multiple myeloma.
Haematologica. 2011 Aug ;96(8):1170-9. Epub 2011 Jun 28. PMID: 21712538
Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Dept. of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston MA 02115, USA.
BACKGROUND: Isothiocyanates, a family of phytochemicals found in cruciferous vegetables, have cytotoxic effects against several types of tumor cells. Multiple myeloma is a fatal disease characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. The growing body of preclinical information on the anti-cancer activity of isothiocyanates led us to investigate their anti-myeloma properties.
DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated the anti-myeloma activity of the isothiocyanates, sulforaphane and phenethyl isothiocyanate, on a panel of human myeloma cell lines as well as primary myeloma tumor cells. Cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle alterations and cell proliferation were then analyzed in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model in vivo. The molecular sequelae of isothiocyanate treatment in multiple myeloma cells were evaluated by multiplex analyses using bead arrays and western blotting.
RESULTS: We observed that sulforaphane and phenylethyl isothiocyanate have activity against myeloma cell lines and patients' myeloma cells both in vitro and in vivo using a myeloma xenograft mouse model. Isothiocyanates induced apoptotic death of myeloma cells; depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential; cleavage of PARP and caspases-3 and -9; as well as down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins including Mcl-1, X-IAP, c-IAP and survivin. Isothiocyanates induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by mitotic phosphorylation of histone H3. Multiplex analysis of phosphorylation of diverse components of signaling cascades revealed changes in MAPK activation; increased phosphorylation of c-jun and HSP27; as well as changes in the phosphorylation of Akt, and GSK3α/β and p53. Isothiocyanates suppressed proliferation of myeloma cells alone and when co-cultured with HS-5 stromal cells. Sulforaphane and phenylethyl isothiocyanate enhanced the in vitro anti-myeloma activity of several conventional and novel therapies used in multiple myeloma.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that isothiocyanates have potent anti-myeloma activities and may enhance the activity of other anti-multiple myeloma agents. These results indicate that isothiocyanates may have therapeutic potential in multiple myeloma and provide the preclinical framework for future clinical studies of isothiocyanates in multiple myeloma.