Neuroprotective Effects of the Methanol Extract of Kimchi, a Korean Fermented Vegetable Food, Mediated Via Suppression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Caspase Cascade Pathways in High-Cholesterol Diet-Fed Mice.
J Med Food. 2018 May ;21(5):489-495. Epub 2018 Feb 23. PMID: 29474123
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related unfolded peptide accumulation is closely associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases known as protein misfolding disorders. The antioxidative properties of kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable dish, have been well established. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of the kimchi methanol extract (KME) were examined in high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed mice. The animals were fed a HCD, with oral administration of either KME (KME group, 200 mg·kg bw·day, n = 10) or distilled water (Control group, n = 10) for 8 weeks. Compared with the levels in the control group, the reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite, and lipid peroxidation levels in the brain were significantly decreased in the KME group (P < .05), whereas the glutathione level was increased (P < .05). In addition, the ER stress biomarkers, phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit α, glucose-regulated protein 78, X-box binding protein 1, inositol-requiring enzyme 1, and C/EBP homologous protein and the nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated inflammation were significantly reduced in the KME group (P < .05). In contrast, the expression levels of antioxidative enzymes regulated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 were elevated (P < .05). The amyloid-beta expression levels of the KME group were lower than that of the control group (P < .05). Moreover, the expression levels of Bcl-2-associated X, and caspases-3 and -9 were downregulated, with a concomitant upregulation of B cell lymphoma 2 (P < .05). Accordingly, KME provide neuronal cell protection via suppressing ER stress and caspase cascade signaling.