Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. inhibit growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of caries-inducing Streptococcus mutans.
J Cell Mol Med. 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8. PMID: 29316223
Streptococcus mutans contributes significantly to dental caries, which arises from homoeostasic imbalance between host and microbiota. We hypothesized that Lactobacillus sp. inhibits growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of Streptococcus mutans. Antibacterial (agar diffusion method) and antibiofilm (crystal violet assay) characteristics of probiotic Lacobacillus sp. against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) were evaluated. We investigated whether Lacobacillus casei (ATCC 393), Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC 23272), Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 14917) or Lactobacillus salivarius (ATCC 11741) inhibit expression of Streptococcus mutans genes involved in biofilm formation, quorum sensing or stress survival using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Growth changes (OD600) in the presence of pH-neutralized, catalase-treated or trypsin-treated Lacobacillus sp. supernatants were assessed to identify roles of organic acids, peroxides and bacteriocin. Susceptibility testing indicated antibacterial (pH-dependent) and antibiofilm activities of Lacobacillus sp. against Streptococcus mutans. Scanning electron microscopy revealed reduction in microcolony formation and exopolysaccharide structural changes. Of the oral normal flora, L. salivarius exhibited the highest antibiofilm and peroxide-dependent antimicrobial activities. All biofilm-forming cells treated with Lacobacillus sp. supernatants showed reduced expression of genes involved in exopolysaccharide production, acid tolerance and quorum sensing. Thus, Lacobacillus sp.can inhibit tooth decay by limiting growth and virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans.