Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain mitigated the development of obstructive sleep apnea-induced hypertension in a high salt diet via regulating TMAO level and CD4T cell induced-type I inflammation.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Apr ;112:108580. Epub 2019 Feb 18. PMID: 30784906
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and high salt content in modern diet has been particularly implicated in systemic hypertension, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Gut dysbiosis, associated with increased risk of systemic immunological imbalance, plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain (LGG) on the development of hypertension induced by OSA and high salt diet. In this study, hypertension was modeled in rats by feeding a high salt diet (HSD) for 6 wk and exposuring to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during the sleep cycle. We found that OSA combined with HSD increased the severity of hypertension through increasing level of blood Trimethylamine-Oxide (TMAO), release of Th1-related cytokine (IFN-γ) and inhibition of anti-inflammatory cytokine (TGF-β1), and affected the gut microbiome in rats, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus. In addition, expression of PERK1/2, PAkt and PmTOR increased in the aorta from rats with a CIH exposure and HSD. Consequently, treatment of model rats with LGG prevented aggravation of hypertension by reducing blood TMAO levels, modulating Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance and suppressing phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, Akt and mTOR. In line with these findings, our results connect high salt diet to the gut-immune axis and highlight the gut microbiome as a potential therapeutic target to counteract the development of OSA-induced hypertension basing on a high salt diet.