Learning and memory impairments associated to acetylcholinesterase inhibition and oxidative stress following glyphosate based-herbicide exposure in mice.
Toxicology. 2019 Mar 1 ;415:18-25. Epub 2019 Jan 22. PMID: 30682438
Yassine Ait Bali
Numerous clinical and epidemiological data have reported the deleterious effects of glyphosate on learning and memory. The ability of this herbicide to cross the blood-brain barrier may have adverse effects on the structure and various functions of the nervous system. This study was conducted to highlight the effects of Glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) on these two functions in mice treated daily with 250 or 500 mg/kg following acute (unique administration), subchronic (6 weeks) and chronic (12 weeks) treatments. The integrity of learning and memory was assessed by using a specific behavioral test battery: Novel object recognition, Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and anti-oxidant enzyme activities, especially superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (PO) were evaluated. Our results indicated that unlike acute treatment, both subchronic and chronic exposure to GBH decreased discrimination index and the step-through-latency indicating recognition and retention memory impairments, respectively. In contrast, only chronic exposure affected working memory manifested by decreased spontaneous alternation. Furthermore, our results showed also a prominent decrease in AChE, SOD and PO specific activities within the brain of treated mice following repeated exposures.This study demonstrates that GBH induced numerous cognitive abnormalities referred to different forms of memory likely associated with a significant inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative stress induction.