Pharmacology and toxicology of omeprazole--with special reference to the effects on the gastric mucosa.
Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1986;118:31-8. PMID: 3460170
Omeprazole is a long acting inhibitor of gastric acid secretion in different species including rat and dog. Due to the long duration of action, steady state inhibition at repeated once daily administration is reaches within 4-5 days in dogs and in about 3 days in rats. Daily dosing at high dose levels results in virtually complete 24-hour inhibition of acid secretion in experimental animals. The elimination of the inhibitory feedback effect of acid on gastrin secretion leads to hypergastrinaemia. Because gastrin has a trophic effect on the oxyntic mucosa, the hypergastrinaemia results in a reversible hypertrophy of the oxyntic mucosa and an increased capacity to produce acid following maximal stimulation with exogenous secretagogues after discontinuing treatment. Despite the increased capacity to produce acid, basal acid secretion seems to be unchanged. The pronounced hypergastrinaemia which occurs during long-term treatment with high doses rapidly normalizes after discontinuing treatment. The hyperplasia of the oxyntic endocrine ECL cells, and the eventual development of gastric ECL cell carcinoids after lifelong treatment of rats with high doses, can also be attributed to the hypergastrinaemia developing after almost complete elimination of gastric acid secretion in these animals.