Low Concentration of Withaferin a Inhibits Oxidative Stress-Mediated Migration and Invasion in Oral Cancer Cells.
Biomolecules. 2020 May 17 ;10(5). Epub 2020 May 17. PMID: 32429564
Withaferin A (WFA) has been reported to inhibit cancer cell proliferation based on high cytotoxic concentrations. However, the low cytotoxic effect of WFA in regulating cancer cell migration is rarely investigated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in migration and mechanisms of oral cancer Ca9-22 cells after low concentrations of WFA treatment. WFA under 0.5μM at 24 h treatment shows no cytotoxicity to oral cancer Ca9-22 cells (~95% viability). Under this condition, WFA triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibits 2D (wound healing) and 3D cell migration (transwell) and Matrigel invasion. Mechanically, WFA inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities but induces mRNA expression for a group of antioxidant genes, such as nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (), heme oxygenase 1 (), glutathione-disulfide reductase (), and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 ()) in Ca9-22 cells. Moreover, WFA induces mild phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 expression. All WFA-induced changes were suppressed by the presence of ROS scavenger-acetylcysteine (NAC). Therefore, these results suggest that low concentration of WFA retains potent ROS-mediated anti-migration and -invasion abilities for oral cancer cells.