Lower vitamin D levels are associated with higher blood glucose levels in Asian Indian women with pre-diabetes: a population-based cross-sectional study in North India.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2018 ;6(1):e000501. Epub 2018 Jun 15. PMID: 29942523
Surya Prakash Bhatt
Background: Asian Indian women are predisposed to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome and vitamin D deficiency. Relationship of vitamin D deficiency with blood glucose levels has not been explored in Asian Indian women with pre-diabetes.
Objective: We evaluated the associations of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among adult women with the pre-diabetes residing in North India (Delhi).
Methods: This cross-sectional population-based study involved 797 women with pre-diabetes aged 20-60 years. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), extent of sun exposure and serum 25(OH)D levels were assessed. For purpose of analysis, serum 25(OH)D levels (nmol/L) were categorized in quintiles as follows: 0-21.5 (first quintile), 21.51-35.60 (second quintile), 35.61-46.50 (third quintile), 46.51-62.30 (fourth quintile) and>62.31 (fifth quintile).
Result: The prevalence (%) of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency was 68.6, 25.9 and 5.5, respectively. Mean age (p=0.004), systolic (p=0.05) and diastolic (p=0.04) blood pressure, weight (p=0.03), BMI (p=0.04) and FBG (p=0.02) were significantly higher in subjects with vitamin D deficiency as compared with those with vitamin D insufficiency and sufficiency. Unadjusted mean values of FBG were significantly decreased in fourth (p=0.02) and fifth quintiles (p=0.030) of 25(OH)D levels as compared with second quintile. Furthermore, after adjusting for age and family income FBG levels were significantly increased in first quintile (compared with fourth (p=0.012) and fifth (p=0.018) quintiles) and second quintile (compared with fourth (p=0.003) and fifth (p=0.004) quintiles) of 25(OH)D levels, respectively.
Conclusion: Lower vitamin D levels are associated with higher blood glucose values in Asian Indian women with pre-diabetes. These findings need confirmation in case-control and prospective studies.