Epicatechin and scopoletin-rich Morinda citrifolia leaf ameliorated leukemia via anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenesis, and apoptosis pathways in vitro and in vivo.
J Food Biochem. 2019 Jul ;43(7):e12868. Epub 2019 Apr 24. PMID: 31353737
The anti-leukemia mechanisms of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract were investigated on human Jurkat leukemia cells and in leukemia-induced BALB/c mice. The leukemia-induced mice were fed daily with the extract (100 or 200 mg/kg BW) and compared to ATRA (All-trans-retinoic-acid; 5 mg/kg BW). After 4 weeks' treatment, the extract (standardized to epicatechin and scopoletin), arrested Jurkat cell-cycle at the G0/G1 phase and activated the caspase-3 and caspase-8 (death-receptor extrinsic pathways). The extract dose-dependently reduced the blood and bone marrow myeloblasts levels of leukemia-induced mice; upregulated cancer suppressor genes CSF3, SOCS1, PTEN and TRP53; increased anti-inflammatory IL10 and IL4; downregulated anti-apoptotic or proliferation genes; decreased the pro-inflammatory NF-κβ; suppressed pro-angiogenesis VEGFA mRNA expressions, and restored the homeostatic immune or leukocytes levels. The extract directly ameliorated leukemia via cancer cells apoptosis, suppressed inflammation and angiogenesis; and mitigated bone marrow myeloblasts imbalance, without any observable toxicity on theanimals. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The scopoletin (coumarin) and epicatechin (flavonoid)-rich Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves may be used as functional food ingredient, vegetables, or dietary supplements to treat and suppress leukemia progression by directly killing the cancer cells and preventing new cancer cells development and bone marrow myeloblast imbalance in the bone marrow, without being toxic to normal cells. The M. citrifolia leaf extract suppressed inflammation, and potential metastasis by inhibiting new cancer-related blood vessel formation.