and Its Honokiol and Magnolol Constituents Inhibit Human Norovirus Surrogates.
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2020 Jul 23. Epub 2020 Jul 23. PMID: 32716659
Norovirus is a major cause of foodborne disease and nonbacterial gastroenteritis globally. This study evaluated the antiviral effects ofextract and its honokiol and magnolol constituents against human norovirus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), and in model food systems. Pretreatment or cotreatment of.extract at 1 mg/mL reduced MNV and FCV titers by 0.6-1.8 log. Honokiol and magnolol, which are the major polyphenols in the extract, showed significant antiviral effects against MNV and FCV. The virus-infected cells that were treated with.extract exhibited significantly increased glutathione levels ( < 0.05). The extract, honokiol, and magnolol revealed ferric ion-reducing and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MNV and FCV titers were reduced by>1.6 log or to undetectable levels in apple, orange, and plum juices and by 0.9 and 1.6 log in milk, respectively, when they were treated with the extract at 5 mg/mL. Therefore, the present study suggests that.extract can be used as an antiviral food material to control norovirus foodborne diseases.