Dietary Monascus adlay supplements facilitate suppression of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, apoptosis and emphysema-related PLGF in the rat.
Food Chem. 2013 Jan 15 ;136(2):765-74. Epub 2012 Aug 16. PMID: 23122125
Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure may cause oxidative stress in the lung, leading to cell death and long-term injury. Monascus adlay (MA) with antioxidant components produced by inoculating adlay (Cois lachrymal-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) with Monascus purpureus may protect lung against CS-induced lung injuries in rats. MA and lovastatin had higher antioxidant activities than either M. purpureus or adlay. CS exposure caused significant lung damage, as evidenced by higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), neutrophil infiltration, dityrosine and 4-HNE, as well as lower levels of Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase expression. Lung tissues with CS exposure had higher levels of ER stress, apoptosis, autophagy and emphysema-related placenta growth factor (PlGF) expressions. All CS-induced injuries were significantly suppressed by MA supplements. MA would be a beneficial nutritional therapy to ameliorate CS-induced lung injury via preserving antioxidant defense mechanisms, decreasing oxidative stress and inhibiting ER stress, autophagy, apoptosis and emphysema-related risk factor.