Magnesium sulfate prophylaxis attenuates the postpartum effects of preeclampsia by promoting M2 macrophage polarization.
Hypertens Res. 2020 Jul 27. Epub 2020 Jul 27. PMID: 32719464
Preeclampsia is a complex disorder that is characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria at or after 20 weeks of gestation. Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. MgSOis commonly used to treat severe preeclampsia, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood, and investigations into the effects of MgSOduring the postpartum period are lacking. In this study, timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on gestational day 14 to induce preeclampsia. Maternal and fetal outcomes and the macrophage profile 1 week after delivery were explored. On postpartum day (PD) 7, the maternal systolic blood pressure and urinary protein level were significantly increased, the number of M1 macrophages was increased and the number of M2 macrophages was decreased in the maternal kidney and brain; the median duration of gestation, the number of live fetuses, and the fetal weight/placenta weight ratio were significantly decreased; and the percentage of growth-restricted pups and fetal mortality were significantly increased in preeclampsia rats compared to normal pregnant control rats. Prophylactic MgSOdecreased blood pressure at PD7, improved pregnancy outcomes, and promoted the polarization of M2 macrophages in the kidney and of M2 microglia in the brain of preeclampsia rats. These findings confirm that the pathophysiology of preeclampsia involves the dysregulation of the inflammatory response and the activation of M1 macrophages in several target organs during pregnancy. MgSOprophylaxis attenuates the postpartum effects of preeclampsia by promoting M2 macrophage polarization in the maternal kidney and brain.