Mangosteen Vinegar Rind from Garcinia mangostana Prevents High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Type II Diabetes Nephropathy and Apoptosis.
J Food Sci. 2019 May ;84(5):1208-1215. Epub 2019 Apr 23. PMID: 31012974
Type II diabetes (T2D) nephropathy, a major cause of end-stage kidney disease, progresses and develops from oxidative stress. Natural polyphenols can protect the kidney from diabetic nephropathy exerting antioxidant activities. The present approach enumerates the reno-protective and anti-apoptotic effects of mangosteen vinegar rind (MVR, a phenolic aqueous extract) against high-fat diet (5 g/day up to five weeks)-/streptozotocin (single ip, dose 30 mg/kgBW)-induced T2D nephropathy of albino mice. In vitro total phenolic content, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant capacity, and α-amylase inhibition activity as antidiabetic assay of MVR were performed. In vivo mice body weight, oral glucose, and maltose tolerance test, metabolic parameters (plasma glucose, insulin level, omeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance), biochemical parameters (kidney hypertrophy, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine), oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase) were estimated in an intervention study. Additionally, renal morphology and early apoptosis were observed following the H&E staining and TUNEL assay of the tissue frozen section. We found that the aqueous extract of MVR possesses potent in vitro antioxidative and antidiabetic activities. Animal intervention results showed that MVR 100, 200 mg/kgBW, and Glibenclamide 60 mg/kgBW treatments significantly improved (P < 0.05) the abovementioned parameters compared to the diabetic control group. Furthermore, treatments also significantly restored (P < 0.05) kidney histological alterations and reduced cellular apoptosis compared to the diabetic control group. These findings concluded that MVR treatments significantly modulated the glucose intolerance, metabolic alterations, and oxidative stress-induced pathological alterations and cellular apoptosis of diabetic kidney. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Garcinia mangostana, a polyphenol rich natural product, is obtained from the tropical rain forest area of Southeast Asian countries and processes diverse biological activities including antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and so on. This research first time focuses on the nephro-protective and anti-apoptotic effects of mangosteen vinegar rind (MVR) from the mangosteen fruit pericarp. Our study provides the efficient data to prove the beneficial effect of MVR as a dietary supplement for the prevention and management of diabetic nephropathy.