Mechanisms underlying the attenuation of chronic inflammatory diseases by aged garlic extract: Involvement of the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.
Exp Ther Med. 2020 Feb ;19(2):1462-1467. Epub 2019 Dec 27. PMID: 32010323
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase and an important regulator of energy metabolism. The decreased activity of AMPK induced by low-grade chronic inflammation has been implicated in several diseases, including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. However, the activation of AMPK by natural and synthetic products can ameliorate these diseases through the inhibition of inflammation. For example, aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to enhance the phosphorylation of Thr172 of theα-subunit of AMPK in several tissues of disease model animals. In addition, AGE has been reported to suppress the progression of atherosclerotic plaque formation in an animal model of atherosclerosis. Moreover, AGE has been found to decrease the level of plasma glycated albumin and to improve hyperglycemia in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. These inhibitory effects of AGE are induced by the suppression of the inflammatory response. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms through which AGE activates AMPK, as well as the mechanisms through which the activation of AMPK by AGE modulates the inflammatory response in disease models.