Melatonin attenuates diabetic cardiomyopathy and reduces myocardial vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion injury by improving mitochondrial quality control: Role of SIRT6.
J Pineal Res. 2020 Oct 5:e12698. Epub 2020 Oct 5. PMID: 33016468
Targeting mitochondrial quality control with melatonin has been found promising for attenuating diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely undefined. Activation of SIRT6 and melatonin membrane receptors exerts cardioprotective effects while little is known about their roles during DCM. Using high-fat diet-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, we found that prolonged diabetes significantly decreased nocturnal circulatory melatonin and heart melatonin levels, reduced the expressions of cardiac melatonin membrane receptors, and decreased myocardial SIRT6 and AMPK-PGC-1α-AKT signaling. 16 weeks of melatonin treatment inhibited the progression of DCM and the following myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury by reducing mitochondrial fission, enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy via re-activating SIRT6 and AMPK-PGC-1α-AKT signaling. After the induction of diabetes, adeno-associated virus carrying SIRT6-specific small hairpin RNA or luzindole was delivered to the animals. We showed that SIRT6 knockdown or antagonizing melatonin receptors abolished the protective effects of melatonin against mitochondrial dysfunction as evidenced by aggravated mitochondrial fission and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy. Additionally, SIRT6 shRNA or luzindole inhibited melatonin-induced AMPK-PGC-1α-AKT activation as well as its cardioprotective actions. Collectively, we demonstrated that long-term melatonin treatment attenuated the progression of DCM and reduced myocardial vulnerability to MI/R injury through preserving mitochondrial quality control. Melatonin membrane receptor-mediated SIRT6-AMPK-PGC-1α-AKT axis played a key role in this process. Targeting SIRT6 with melatonin treatment may be a promising strategy for attenuating DCM and reducing myocardial vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion injury in diabetic patients.