Mesenchymal stem cell therapies for liver cirrhosis: MSCs as"conducting cells"for improvement of liver fibrosis and regeneration.
Inflamm Regen. 2019 ;39:18. Epub 2019 Sep 9. PMID: 31516638
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be cultured relatively easily and can be obtained not only from the bone marrow, but also from medical waste such as adipose tissue and umbilical cord tissue. Because of its low antigenicity, allogeneic MSC injection is safe. MSCs have been evaluated in more than 900 clinical trials in a variety of fields, with more than 50 clinical trials related to liver diseases. Experiments have suggested that MSCs function as"conducting cells"to affect various"effective cells"such as T cells, B cells, and macrophages. Recent clinical trials have focused on allogeneic MSCs. Thus, studies are needed to determine the most effective cell source, culture conditions, cell numbers, administration frequency, administration route, cost, safety, and liver disease treatments. Recently, the functions of exosomes have gained attention, and cell-free therapy may become possible as an alternative therapy for liver disease. In this review, we introduce general information, mechanism, representative clinical study data, recently started or planned clinical trials, and possibility of cell-free therapy of MSCs.