Mesenchymal Stem Cells Synergize with 635, 532, and 405 nm Laser Wavelengths in Renal Fibrosis: A Pilot Study.
Photomed Laser Surg. 2016 Nov ;34(11):556-563. Epub 2016 May 31. PMID: 27244220
OBJECTIVE: To address whether a single treatment of one of three visible light wavelengths, 635, 532, and 405 nm (constant wave, energy density 2.9 J/m), could affect the hallmarks of established renal fibrosis and whether these wavelengths could facilitate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) beneficence.
BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic kidney disease is a global health problem with only 20% receiving care worldwide. Kidneys with compromised function have ongoing inflammation, including increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, peritubular capillary loss, tubular atrophy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Promising studies have highlighted the significant potential of MSC-based strategies to mitigate fibrosis; however, reversal of established fibrosis has been problematic, suggesting that methods to potentiate MSC effects require further development. Laser treatments at visible wavelengths have been reported to enhance mitochondrial potential and available cellular ATP, facilitate proliferation, and inhibit apoptosis. We hypothesized that laser-delivered energy might provide wavelength-specific effects in the fibrotic kidney and enhance MSC responses.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal fibrosis, established in C57BL6 mice following 21 days of unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO), was treated with one of three wavelengths alone or with autologous MSC. Mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cytokines were measured 24 h later.
RESULTS: Wavelengths 405, 532, and 635 nm all significantly synergized with MSC to enhance mitochondrial activity and reduce apoptosis. Proliferative activity was observed in the renal cortices following combined treatment with the 532 nm laser and MSC; endothelial proliferation increased in response to the 635 nm laser alone andto the combined effects of MSC and the 405 nm wavelength. Reductions of transforming growth factor-β were observed with 532 nm alone and when combined with MSC.
CONCLUSIONS: Specific wavelengths of laser energy appear to induce different responses in renal fibrotic tissue. These findings support further study in the development of a customized laser therapy program of combined wavelengths to optimize MSC effects in the treatment of renal fibrosis.