Metabolomic modulations of HepG2 cells exposed to bisphenol analogues. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Metabolomic modulations of HepG2 cells exposed to bisphenol analogues.
Environ Int. 2019 May 20 ;129:59-67. Epub 2019 May 20. PMID: 31121516
Bisphenol analogues including bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol S (BPS) share similar chemical structures and endocrine disrupting effects. Their effects on metabolisms, however, are so far only marginally understood. In this study, NMR-based metabonomic profiles of HepG2 cell culture media and PCR array were used to assess the metabolomics disturbances and gene expression levels of HepG2 in response to four BPs (BPA, BPAF, BPF, and BPS). The results indicated that BP analogues resulted in disturbances in 7-15 metabolites that were classified as amino acid (alanine, glutamine, glutamate), intermediates and end-products in the glycolysis (pyruvate) and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (acetate, lactate). Their rank in order according to the number of metabolites and pathways was BPF > BPA > BPAF > BPS. The common disrupted pathways (pyruvate metabolism; alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism) indicated enhanced glycolysis. The following glucometabolic PCR array analysis suggested that although four BPs shared the capability of disrupting glucose metabolism, they may act through different mechanisms: BPAF has increased the pyruvate kinase (PKLR) expression level, which implied enhanced glycolysis that was agreed with NMR results. The other three BP analogues, however, decreased the expression level of glucokinase (GCK) that indicated glucose sensing impairment. Our results demonstrated the potential for using metabolomic and PCR array to understand the underlying action of mechanisms and identify the potential targets for future targeted risk assessment.