Molecular Mechanisms of the Anti-Cancer Effects of Isothiocyanates from Cruciferous Vegetables in Bladder Cancer.
Molecules. 2020 Jan 29 ;25(3). Epub 2020 Jan 29. PMID: 32013065
Bladder cancer (BC) is a representative of urological cancer with a high recurrence and metastasis potential. Currently, cisplatin-based chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors are used as standard therapy in patients with advanced/metastatic BC. However, these therapies often show severe adverse events, and prolongation of survival is unsatisfactory. Therefore, a treatment strategy using natural compounds is of great interest. In this review, we focused on the anti-cancer effects of isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from cruciferous vegetables, which are widely cultivated and consumed in many regions worldwide. Specifically, we discuss the anti-cancer effects of four ITC compounds-allyl isothiocyanate, benzyl isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, and phenethyl isothiocyanate-in BC; the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer effects; current trends and future direction of ITC-based treatment strategies; and the carcinogenic potential of ITCs. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of each ITC in BC treatment, furthering the consideration of ITCs in treatment strategies and for improving the prognosis of patients with BC.