Molecular updates on berberine in liver diseases: Bench to bedside. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Molecular updates on berberine in liver diseases: Bench to bedside.
Phytother Res. 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31. PMID: 34056769
Liver diseases are life-threatening illnesses and are the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. These may include liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and drug-induced liver toxicity. Liver diseases have a wide prevalence globally and the fifth most common cause of death among all gastrointestinal disorders. Several novel therapeutic approaches have emerged for the therapy of liver diseases that may provide better clinical outcomes with improved safety. The use of phytochemicals for the amelioration of liver diseases has gained considerable popularity. Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid of the protoberberine type, has emerged as a promising molecule for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Accumulating studies have proved the hepatoprotective effects of BBR. BBR has been shown to modulate multiple signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of liver diseases including Akt/FoxO2, PPAR-γ, Nrf2, insulin, AMPK, mTOR, and epigenetic pathways. In the present review, we have emphasized the important pharmacological activities and mechanisms of BBR in liver diseases. Further, we have reviewed various pharmacokinetic and toxicological barriers of this promising phytoconstituent. Finally, formulation-based novel approaches are also summarized to overcome the clinical hurdles for BBR.